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Arabic, the official language, is spoken by 80% of the population. The Kurds speak a language that is widely known as Kurdish, but in reality Kurds speak either of two Indo-European languages - Kurmanji or Sorani. The Turkomans, who live in villages along the Baghdad to Mosul highway, speak a Turkish dialect. Persian is spoken by minorities near the Iranian border, while similar numbers speak Assyrian and Chaldean. English is quite widely spoken in urban centres.

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