Quiriguá’s history parallels that of Copán, of which it was a dependency during much of the classic period. Of the three sites in this area, only the present archaeological park is of interest.
Quiriguá’s location lent itself to the carving of giant stelae. Beds of brown sandstone in the nearby Río Motagua had cleavage planes suitable for cutting large pieces. Though soft when first cut, the sandstone dried hard in the air. With Copán’s expert artisans nearby for guidance, Quiriguá’s stone carvers were ready for greatness. All they needed was a great leader to inspire them – and to pay for the carving of the huge stelae.
That leader was K’ak’ Tiliw Chan Yo’at (Cauac Sky; r 725–84), who decided that Quiriguá should no longer be under the control of Copán. In a war with his former suzerain, Cauac Sky took King 18 Rabbit of Copán prisoner in 737 and later had him beheaded. Independent at last, Cauac Sky commissioned his stonecutters to go to work, and for the next 38 years they turned out giant stelae and zoomorphs dedicated to the glory of King Cauac Sky.
Cauac Sky’s son Sky Xul (r 784–800) lost his throne to a usurper, Jade Sky. This last great king of Quiriguá continued the building boom initiated by Cauac Sky, reconstructing Quiriguá’s Acrópolis on a grander scale.
Quiriguá remained unknown to Euro-peans until John L Stephens arrived in 1840. Impressed by its great monuments, Stephens lamented the world’s lack of interest in them in his book Incidents of Travel in Central America, Chiapas and Yucatan (1841) :
Of one thing there is no doubt: a large city once stood there; its name is lost, its history unknown; and…no account of its existence has ever before been published. For centuries it has lain as completely buried as if covered with the lava of Vesuvius. Every traveler from Yzabal to Guatemala has passed within three hours of it; we ourselves had done the same; and yet there it lay, like the rock-built city of Edom, unvisited, unsought, and utterly unknown.
Stephens tried to buy the ruined city in order to have its stelae shipped to New York, but the owner, Señor Payes, naturally assumed that Stephens (being a diplomat), was negotiating on behalf of the US government and that the government would pay. Payes quoted an extravagant price, and the deal was never made.
Between 1881 and 1894, excavations were carried out by Alfred P Maudslay. In the early 1900s all the land around Quiriguá was sold to the United Fruit Company and turned into banana groves. The company is gone, but the bananas and Quiriguá remain. Restoration of the site was carried out by the University of Pennsylvania in the 1930s. In 1981, Unesco declared the ruins a World Heritage Site, one of only three in Guatemala (the others are Tikal and Antigua).