Fortress sights in England
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One of London's four World Heritage Sites (joining Westminster Abbey, Kew Gardens and Maritime Greenwich), the Tower offers a window on to a gruesome and quite compelling history.
In the 1070s, William the Conqueror started work on the White Tower to replace the castle he'd previously had built here. By 1285, two walls with towers and a moat were built around it and the defences have barely been altered since. A former royal residence, treasury, mint and arsenal, it became most famous as a prison when Henry VIII moved to Whitehall Palace in 1529 and started meting out his preferred brand of punishment.
The most striking building is indeed the central White Tower, with its…
This small military museum occupies one of the 77 strongholds built in the early 19th century to defend the south coast from Napoleon's planned invasion.
Around 6 miles east of the centre, along the A1033, Fort Paull is a grand, lavishly restored fort. The 1860s structure, with its underground labyrinths, is interesting, while stilted waxworks and warlike stuff document the fort's history from the AD 910 Viking landing onwards.