Cartagena was founded in 1533 by Pedro de Heredia on the site of the Carib Indian settlement of Calamari. It quickly grew into a rich town, but in 1552 an extensive fire destroyed a large number of its wooden buildings. Since that time, only stone, brick and tile have been permitted as building materials.
Within a short time the town blossomed into the main Spanish port on the Caribbean coast and the major northern gate-way to South America. It came to be the storehouse for the treasure plundered from the Indians until the galleons could ship it back to Spain. As such, it became a tempting target for all sorts of buccaneers operating on the Caribbean Sea.
In the 16th century alone, Cartagena suffered five dreadful sieges by pirates, the most famous (or infamous) of which was that led by Sir Francis Drake. He sacked the port in 1586 and 'mercifully' agreed not to level the town once he was presented with a huge ransom of 10 million pesos, which he shipped back to England.
It was in response to pirate attacks that the Spaniards built up a series of forts around the town, saving it from subsequent sieges, particularly from the biggest attack of all, led by Edward Vernon in 1741. The successful defense was commanded by Blas de Lezo, a Spanish officer who had already lost an arm, a leg and an eye in previous battles. With only 2500 poorly trained and ill-equipped men, Don Blas managed to fend off 25, 000 English soldiers and their fleet of 186 ships. The Spaniard lost his other leg in the fighting and died soon after, but is now regarded as the savior of Cartagena - you can see his statue outside the San Felipe Fortress.
In spite of the high price it had to pay for the pirate attacks, Cartagena continued to flourish. The Canal del Dique, constructed in 1650 to connect Cartagena Bay with the Río Magdalena, made the town the main gateway for ships heading to ports upriver, and a large part of the merchandise shipped inland passed through Cartagena. During the colonial period, Cartagena was the most important bastion of the Spanish overseas empire and influenced much of Colombia's history.
The indomitable spirit of the inhabitants was rekindled again at the time of the independence movement. Cartagena was one of the first towns to proclaim independence from Spain, early in 1810, which prompted Bogotá and other cities to do the same. The declaration was signed on November 11, 1811, but the city paid dearly for it. Spanish forces under Pablo Morillo were sent in 1815 to reconquer and 'pacify' the town and took it after a four-month siege. More than 6000 inhabitants died of starvation and disease.
In August 1819, Simón Bolívar's troops defeated the Spaniards at Boyacá, bringing freedom to Bogotá. However, Cartagena had to wait for its liberation until October 1821, when the patriot forces eventually took the city by sea. It was Bolívar who gave Cartagena its well-deserved name of 'La Heroica, ' the Heroic City.
Cartagena began to recover and was shortly once again an important trading and shipping center. The city's prosperity attracted foreign immigrants, and many Jews, Italians, French, Turks, Lebanese and Syrians settled here. Today their descendants own many businesses, including hotels and restaurants.
Over the past decades, Cartagena has expanded dramatically and is now surrounded by vast suburbs. It now is Colombia's largest port and an important industrial center specializing in petrochemicals, but the old walled town has changed little.