Pedro Cabral’s landing 16km north of Porto Seguro (Safe Port) at Coroa Vermelha is officially considered the first Portuguese landfall in Brazil. The sailors didn’t stay long, just long enough to stock up on supplies. Three years later Gonçalvo Coelho’s expedition arrived and planted a marker in what is now Porto Seguro’s Cidade Histórica (Historic City). Jesuits on the same expedition built a church, now in ruins, in Outeiro da Glória. In 1526, a naval outpost, convent and chapel (Igreja NS da Misericórdia) were built in the present-day Cidade Histórica.
The Tupininquin, not the Pataxó, were the indigenous tribe around the site of Porto Seguro when the Portuguese landed. They were rapidly conquered and enslaved by the colonists, but the Aimoré, Pataxó, Cataxó and other inland tribes resisted Portuguese colonization and constantly threatened Porto Seguro. Military outposts were built along the coast in Belmonte, Vila Viçosa, Prado and Alcobaça to defend against both European attacks by sea and Indian attacks by land.
The Indians managed to take Porto Seguro twice and, according to colonial documents, reduced Porto Seguro to rubble in 1612 (thus undermining the city’s claims to have 16th-century buildings).