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There are over 460 species of bird recorded in Afghanistan, with nearly 200 of those breeding in the country. Species are mostly Palearctic, (from Europe, the Mediterranean and North Asia), with a significant number from the Indian subcontinent.

Commonly seen species include the mynah, rock dove, bulbul and buzzard. In the mountains, ravens and choughs are regularly seen. Large raptors include the black vulture and the huge lammergeier, both of which can be spotted in remote mountain areas. Birds of prey have commonly been seen as an important trade item for some groups, and are captured for hunting or selling on to Arabs.

Afghanistan forms an important corridor for migrating waterbirds, with the south traditionally serving as an over-wintering ground, and species flying north over the Salang Pass in spring and summer. These range in size from small ducks and waders up to storks, although the Siberian crane has not been seen for several years.